Ghazal and its Components


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Ghazal

Definition (from Wikipedia)


In poetry (and as the lyrics in songs), “Ghazal” (Persian/Arabic/Urdu: Turkish gazel) is a poetic form consisting of couplets, which share a rhyme and a refrain. (The word "ghazal" is of Arabic origins, and is pronounced roughly like the English word "guzzle", but with a different first consonant.) Ghazal (adapted into Urdu from Persian) is a reference to the cry of a gazelle.


The form is ancient, originating in 10th century Persian verse. It is derived from the Persian Qasida (appreciation), which in turn is derived from a pre-Islamic Arabian form. The ghazal spread into India in the 12th century under the influence of the new Islamic Sultanate courts and Sufi mystics. The ghazal is most prominently a form of Urdu poetry


A ghazal, in short, is a collection of couplets (called sher), which follow the rules of “Matla”, “Maqta”, “Bahar”, “Qaafiyah”, “Radif”, “Khayaal”, and “Wazan”. The traditional complete ghazal has a matla, a maqta, and three other shers in between.


Components of Ghazal:

Some of the prominent components of a ghazal are defined as follows:


Matla: It is the first repeating sentence of ghazal.

Maqta: Maqta is the last sher (couplet) of a ghazal, a collection of Urdu poems, in which the poet's takhallus (alias), or pen name, is employed, often in very creative ways. "Ishq nay Nikumaa kiya Ghalib"

Bahar: Bahar can be considered as the length of the sher. Both the lines in the sher, the couplet, must be of same bahar.

Qafiyah: Rhyming words, usually at the end of each verse.

Radif: The second line of all the Shers must end with the same word/s, repeating of common words is the "Radif" of the ghazal

Khyaal: A thought

Wazan: Ratio of use of above features of the ghazal

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